The Hamas-Israel conflict has long been recognized as a volatile flashpoint that involves not only religious and nationalist tensions, but also broader geopolitical implications. It becomes crucial to delve deeper into the complexities underlying this multifaceted conflict amid recent intensified hostilities. This essay aims to analyze comprehensively the Hamas-Israel conflict, examining the interplay of religious ideologies, nationalistic aspirations, and geopolitical forces. By exploring the historical backdrop and the underlying factors that shape the conflict, we can better understand its long-term implications and the intricate dynamics that have perpetuated the cycle of violence between Hamas and Israel. Thus, this analysis will shed light on how this conflict extends beyond surface-level issues, reflecting the broader complexities of the geopolitics of the Middle East.

Historical Background: The Origins of the Hamas-Israel Conflict

The origins of the Hamas-Israel conflict can be traced back to the complex historical narratives of both sides. The conflict between Israel and Palestine is deeply rooted in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which dates back to the late 19th century when Zionist settlers began arriving in Palestine. However, the rise of Hamas as a major player in the conflict can be traced back to the First Intifada in the late 1980s. The Intifada, characterized by widespread protests, riots, and acts of violence by Palestinians against the Israeli occupation, led to the emergence of Hamas as a nationalist and Islamist movement. While some argue that Hamas was initially created and supported by Israel as a counterbalance to the secular Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), others argue that Hamas grew independently as a response to the failure of the Oslo peace process in the 1990s. Despite its origins, Hamas has become a significant factor in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, propelling it into a nexus of religion, nationalism, and geopolitics.

The Role of Religion in the Conflict

Religion has played a crucial role in the longstanding conflict between Hamas and Israel, deepening the complexity of the ongoing conflict. The significance of religious dimensions is evident in both Hamas and Israel’s strong connection to their respective religious identities. For Hamas, which draws its ideological roots from Islamism, religion serves as a driving force behind their resistance against Israeli occupation. The belief in the Islamic liberation of Palestine underscores Hamas’ steadfast commitment to reclaiming what they view as their religiously significant land. Similarly, Israel’s national narrative is deeply intertwined with the Jewish faith, considering the establishment of a Jewish state as fulfilling God’s promise to the Jewish people. This religious connection is not just a matter of symbolism but has concrete implications for both sides of the conflict, shaping their beliefs, motivations, and strategies. The religious dimensions of the competition also contribute to the obstacles in achieving a peaceful resolution, as both parties hold deeply rooted religious claims to the land, complicating efforts for compromise and shared governance. Understanding the role of religion in this conflict is crucial for grasping its intractable nature and developing strategies that foster peace and mutual understanding.

Nationalism and Identity in the Hamas-Israel Conflict

Nationalistic factors play a significant role in the Hamas-Israel conflict, with both sides emphasizing their national identity to fuel support and mobilize their populations. Hamas, in particular, leverages Palestinian nationalism as a central tenet of its ideology. For Palestinians, the conflict represents a struggle for national liberation and establishing a sovereign state. This nationalist fervor is deeply entrenched in the collective consciousness of the Palestinian people, rooted in decades of perceived injustices and dispossession. On the other hand, Israel’s nationalistic narrative frames the conflict as self-defense and preserving Jewish identity and sovereignty. This dynamic of competing nationalisms not only escalates tensions, but also creates a complex web of historical narratives and symbolic gestures that shape the perceptions and identities of both sides, perpetuating the cycle of violence and resistance.

Geopolitical Implications: The Wider Context of the Conflict

The Hamas-Israel conflict does not exist in isolation; it reflects the wider context of geopolitical tensions in the Middle East. The region has long been a battleground for competing national and religious aspirations, with numerous actors vying for power and influence. This broader geopolitical analysis reveals that the conflict between Hamas and Israel is not merely about the immediate issues at hand but carries implications for the larger stability and security of the region. The escalation of violence in recent days is a stark reminder of the fragile nature of the geopolitical landscape in the Middle East. It serves as a potent warning of the potential for further destabilization. In this complex web of competing interests, the conflict between Hamas and Israel can have a ripple effect, with potential consequences for neighboring countries and beyond. It is imperative to understand and address the broader geopolitical implications of this conflict to foster lasting peace and stability in the region.


In conclusion, the Hamas-Israel conflict is a complex and multifaceted issue rooted in deep-seated religious, nationalist, and geopolitical tensions. The recent events in the competition highlight the urgency of finding a sustainable and long-term solution that addresses the underlying reasons for the violence. The conflict has far-reaching implications, not just for the immediate region, but also for broader geopolitical dynamics. It underscores the need for a comprehensive approach that recognizes the religious and nationalist aspirations of both sides while also considering the strategic interests of the global powers involved. Ultimately, a just and lasting resolution can only be achieved by acknowledging and addressing the root causes of the conflict and working towards a negotiated settlement that respects the rights and aspirations of all parties involved.


Disclaimer. The views and opinions expressed in this op-ed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of MEPEI. Any content provided by our authors is of their opinion and is not intended to malign any religion, ethnic group, club, organization, company, individual, or anyone or anything.

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Amin Bagheri is a Research Fellow at the International Studies Association in Tehran. His primary research interest lies in international relations, transnational governance, international peace, and conflicts in the Middle East. Twitter account: @bghr_amin

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